Endangered Species Recovery Program

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Recovery Plan for Upland Species of the San Joaquin Valley, California
Contents . Introduction . Species accounts . Recovery . Stepdown . Implementation . References . Appendix

Appendix B. Glossary of Technical Terms

achenea tiny dry fruit with one seed
adaptive managementa long-termrepeated process of gradually modifying management techniques based upon the results of modeling and research
alkali scaldbarren area with a surface crust of salts
alkali sinkdrainage basin with soil high in soluble salts
alluvial fanfan-shaped area of soil deposited wherea mountain stream first enters a valley or plain
apomixisseed set without fertilization
auditory bullaeboney capsules containing the middleand inner ears
biological nicheall the physical and biologicalfactors required for a particular species to live and its way of living
biosystematic studyresearch that uses evidence fromseveral disciplines to determine the appropriate taxonomic placement and relationship to other species.
bisexualhaving both male and female parts (said ofa flower)
bracta leaf-like structure that is associated witha flower; may be green or colored
brummatedormancy in animals whose body temperaturevaries with their environment
CaltransCalifornia Department of Transportation
calyxthe group of leaf-like structures (sepals)in a flower immediately below the petals
CDFGCalifornia Department of Fish & Game
chenopoda plant in the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae)
Ciervo-Panoche Natural Areanatural lands along thewestern edge of the Valley and in the contiguous foothills and coastal range, from the Panoche Hills and Valley, Fresno and San Benito Counties, south to Anticline Ridge near Coalinga, Fresno County
ciliatehaving stiff hairs along the margin
cismontanewest of the Sierra Nevada crest (literallyon this side of the mountains)
clumpsgroups of cactus pads that are rooted at thesame point
COEArmy Corps of Engineers
corollathe set of petals in a flower whether separate or fused
crissumundertail feathers
cryptogamic crusta layer of moss, lichen, and algaeon the soil surface
disk floretstiny tubular flowers that are clusteredin the center of a flower head, like a common daisy
demography, demographicthe study of populationswith reference to birth and death rates, size and density, distribution, migration, and other vital statistics
ear pinnaeexternal ear flaps
effective dispersaldispersal of genes
Endangered Species Recovery Program a cooperativeresearch program on biodiversity conservation in central California,administered by California State University, Stanislaus Foundation
endemic, endemismrestricted in occurrence to astated site or area (e.g., endemic to California)
entireuntoothed or smooth (said of the margin ofa leaf)
estrusperiodic physiological state in female mammalsthat immediately precedes ovulation; heat
extantstill in exisence
eye-spotsrounded structures on cactus pads thatcontain barbed bristles
floretstiny flowers characteristic of the asterfamily
forbbroad-leaved herb
guildmeaning a group of species with a common needfor a particular habitat or other niche component
gularthroat area
gynodioecya state of certain plant populationscharacterized by a mixture of plants with flowers having only female parts andplants with flowers having both male and female parts (adjective: gynodioecious)
habitat protectionensuring appropriate uses of landto maintain and optimize species habitat values
halophyteplant tolerant of alkaline and salinesoils
hemiparasiticobtaining water and nutrients fromthe roots of other plants then manufacturing food through photosynthesis (noun: hemiparasitism)
host plantthe source of water and nutrients for aparasitic plant
hydrologic regimeseasonal water cycles andmovements
keystone speciesspecies that have key roles inshaping the environment that affects the presence or absence of other organisms; usually the presence of a keystone species leads to a greater variety of species
leaf axilthe point where a leaf is attached to astem
lipsgroups of fused petals that differ inappearance
lobesfree tips of flower or leaf parts that arefused at the base
matrilinealtracing ancestral descent through thematernal line
matrix projection modellinga mathematical techniquethat uses life history data to identify critical stages in the life cycle of an organism and project population growth rates (Menges 1986, Schemske et. al. 1994)
metapopulationscattered groups of plants or animalsthat may function as a single population due to occasional interbreeding
microhabitatlocalized areas with unique conditionsdue to small-scale variations in physical features of the landscape
mitigation bank large blocks of land preserved,restored, and enhanced for purposes of consolidating mitigation for and mitigating in advance for projects that take listed species
mosaicinterspersed patches of vegetation eachdominated by a different species
occurrencescollection sites separated by 0.4kilometers (0.25 miles) or more
padthe fleshy flattened green stem of a cactus
palmatedeeply divided into finger-like segments(usually in reference to leaf shape)
phenologytiming of different stages in the lifecycle of a plant
pistillatehaving only female reproductive parts(said of a flower)
playaa shallow temporary lake that may form inalkali sinks
poikilothermichaving a body temperature that varieswith the temperature of its surroundings (cold-blooded animals)
polygynymating pattern in which a male mates withmore than one female in a single breeding season
postpartumsoon after giving birth
precinctarea over and around the burrow system ofa giant kangaroo rat in which most activity takes place
ray floretstiny flowers with flattened fused petalsthat occur near the margin of a flower head in a member of the Aster family (e.g., the petals of a common daisy)
Salinas-Pajaro Regionareas of the Salinas Riverand Pajaro River watersheds with habitat for kit foxes
savannaa combination of grassland and woodland inwhich the trees are widely scattered
scrubshrubland dominated by shrubs less than 2 meters (6 feet) tall
stamenthe male reproductive part of a plant
stylepart of the female reproductive system of a plant
superciliary stripea stripe above the eye
taxona taxonomic unit of any rank, often used torefer to an entity that is considered by some to be a subspecies and others to be a species (plural: taxa)
tuberclea wart-like projection
type specimenthe individual plant or animal thatwas the basis for the original description of a scientific name
type localitythe site from which a type specimenwas collected
umbrella speciesa species that lives in many bioticcommunities or has broad habitat requirements that if provided for and protected will protect the habitat of many other species
unicuspidsteeth behind the incisors that have asingle main chewing surface (cusp)
vegetative reproductionthe production of new plantsfrom sources other than seed (e.g., from cuttings or root runners)
USBLMBureau of Land Management
USFWS U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
western Kern CountyElk Hills, Buena Vista Valley,Buena Vista Hills, Lokern Natural Area, and adjacent natural lands

Zuni drawing of a badger

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