Endangered Species Recovery Program

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Recovery Plan for Upland Species of the San Joaquin Valley, California
Contents . Introduction . Species accounts . Recovery . Stepdown . Implementation . References . Appendix

IV. STEPDOWN NARRATIVE

  1. Develop and implement a regional cooperative program and participation plan
  2. Protect and secure existing populations
  3. Determine distributions and population statuses of featured species
  4. Conduct important research and monitoring
  5. Maintain and establish linkages in existing natural lands and between islands of habitat on the Valley floor and natural lands around the fringe of the Valley
  6. Apply adaptive management to protected areas
  7. If necessary, reintroduce selected featured species to appropriate habitat within their historic range
  8. Periodically review the status of candidates and species of concern to determine if listing as endangered or threatened is necessary
  1. 1. Develop and implement a regional cooperative program and participation plan.

    Development of a regional cooperative program coordinating local public and private land use planning with State and Federal land use planning, recovery planning, and biodiversity conservation is needed. From this program, a participation plan should be developed and implemented to expedite and increase the chances of recovery for listed species and ensure long-term conservation of the 23 other species covered in this recovery plan.

    1. 1.1. Establish a regional cooperative program with participants from the public and private sector (Priority 2).

      Successful development of a regional cooperative program and preparation of a participation plan requires involvement by public and private interests in the planning area. Interested parties at all levels of government and in the private sector should be identified and their willingness to participate in a cooperative program determined. Once participants are identified, the program should be initiated.

    2. 1.2. Develop and implement participation plans.

      Participation plans should be developed to implement recovery. These plans should include outreach efforts to enhance the public's understanding of endangered species issues, economic incentives for conservation of endangered species on private lands, guidance on mitigation banking and establishment of large-scale Habitat Conservation Plans, focused safe harbor programs, and focused retirement of drainage problem lands. Separate participation plans may be developed and implemented for many of the tasks contained herein.

      1. 1.2.1. Develop and implement an outreach plan (Priority 2).

        Outreach is an important component of implementing this recovery plan. A plan should be developed by the regional cooperative program to provide factual information about featured species and the recovery process to interested and affected landowners. An important focus of outreach should be toward landowners with reported or potential occurrences of featured species. For private lands with reported populations of featured species, landowners should be apprised of the significance of the populations on their lands and should be provided with information about available conservation mechanisms, such as conservation easements and incentive programs (See Task 1.2.2). For private lands with potential occurrences of featured species, permission should be sought from cooperative landowners to conduct on-site surveys. If surveys identify populations of featured species, landowners should be apprised of their significance and offered incentives to continue current land uses that support featured species habitat.

      2. 1.2.2. Develop and implement economic or other incentives for conservation and recovery on private lands through the cooperative program and with other groups (Priority 2).

        Economic and other incentive programs (relief from taxes, tax credits, tax deductible habitat management expenses, Williamson Act, Conservation Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife, and others) are important to gaining the support and assistance of private landowners in conserving and recovering species featured in this recovery plan (Hudson 1993, Dwyer et al. 1995, Keystone Center 1995, Eisner et al. 1995). As part of the regional cooperative program, or through working with other groups, such programs should be developed for the planning area. Incentive programs should play a role in protection of habitat on private property (See Task 2.1 and 2.2), and in establishing linkages on the Valley floor (Task 5.1) and elsewhere (Task 5.3).

      3. 1.2.3. Encourage and assist counties and owners of large amounts of natural lands in developing and implementing large-area Habitat Conservation Plans (Priority 2).

        City and county governments are the primary agencies in deciding on land uses, and thus, their involvement in any future recovery planning processes is critical. Habitat Conservation Plans have been developed and others are being developed. The regional cooperative program should promote similar initiatives in other counties in the planning area. Assistance should also be provided to owners of large amounts of natural land.

      4. 1.2.4. Encourage and assist in the development and implementation of mitigation banks separately or in conjunction with large-scale Habitat Conservation Plans (Priority 2).

        Mitigation banks should be promoted by the regional cooperative program as a means of overcoming many of the problems associated with mitigating for lost habitat on a piecemeal basis, separately or in conjunction with large scale Habitat Conservation Plans. Areas with the greatest potential for mitigation banks are western Kern County (one established, another in planning), the Coalinga and Ciervo-Panoche areas of western Fresno County, western Madera County, and other, lightly-developed oil and gas-producing areas. However, all large blocks of privately-owned natural land that are identified as important in this recovery plan should be considered.

      5. 1.2.5. Encourage and assist landowners and private interest groups in developing focused safe-harbor programs (Priority 2).

        Farming interests, the CDFG, and USFWS are pursuing the development of generalized safe harbor programs in California. To assist in endangered species recovery, specific programs should be developed by the regional cooperative program or other groups. These programs should be carried out in a controlled, experimental manner for the San Joaquin kit fox, and perhaps other species on both irrigated and non-irrigated ground. Implementation of a focused safe harbor program is one of several programs needed to establish linkages for featured species between islands of natural habitat on the Valley floor (See Task 5.1). Components of a pilot safe harbor program and areas to be targeted for San Joaquin kit fox are outlined in Appendix E.

      6. 1.2.6. Coordinate retirement of farmlands with drainage problems with recovery needs of featured species (Priority 2).

        Focused retirement of drainage problem lands is an important component of establishing linkages between islands of natural habitat on the Valley floor for San Joaquin kit fox and other featured species (See Task 5.1). The regional cooperative program should guide the implementation of this land retirement program so that priority is given to land retirement in areas needed for endangered species recovery. Criteria for land retirement, restoration of retired farmland, and guidelines for the program are provided in Appendix F.

  2. 2. Protect and secure existing populations.

    Natural lands known to provide habitat for listed and other sensitive species, should be protected and secured from any identified threats in perpetuity. Protection of these habitat areas requires application of adaptive management (See Task 6) to ensure species survival and recovery. Natural lands needing protection include large blocks of land that function as core areas for listed species, and smaller blocks of land, called 'specialty' reserves that are usually locations of populations of single species.

    1. 2.1. Protect and secure core habitat areas.

      Table 7 lists all core areas, or large blocks of land requiring protection. Public and conservation lands listed in Table 7 should be adaptively managed to maximize their potential to support listed and sensitive species. Private lands included in Table 7 should be protected through voluntary conservation or management agreements (agreements in which a landowner agrees to manage property in a specified way), easements or other mechanisms, then adaptively managed. Management plans should be developed for all protected areas.

      Table 7. Large Blocks or Core Areas of Natural Lands Targeted for Protection. See Figure 70 for the location of core habitat areas.

      Recovery Task #LocalityCountySpecies (target in bold)1Landowner/CommentsPriority
      2.1.1Elk Hills and Buena Vista ValleyKernhws, ons, bnll, gkr, sjkf, sjwt, tp, sjas, snkr, tgm, sjltDepartment of Energy/Occidental/Chevron/ secure long-term protection of natural communities and featured species; prevent disturbance of ons metapopulation.1
      2.1.2Fort Hunter Liggett/ Camp RobertsMonterey, San Luis ObisposjkfDepartment of Defense, California National Guard/ evaluate recent and ongoing base operations and land management studies on kit fox, prepare management plans beneficial to kit fox. 2
      2.1.3Kern Fan ElementKerntkr, sjkf, bnll, bvls, hws, sjwt, bss, lss, lhsb, gkr, tgm, sjlt Kern Water Bank Authority/ protect, restore and enhance upland and wetland communities, introduce bvls and other targeted species through cooperative agreement. Also provides a linkage between Lokern/Elk Hills and Tule Elk Reserve/Kern River Parkway.1
      2.1.4Western Kern County (includes Lokern)Kernkm, ons, lhsb, bnll, sjas, gkr, snkr, tgm, sjkf, sjlt, hws, tbw, jpg, cjf, tp, sjwtUSBLM, Center for Natural Lands Management, private/ preserve 80-90 percent of the existing natural lands below about 500 meters (1,640 feet) between Blackwell's Corner and Maricopa. The Lokern area is within the Kern County Valley Floor Habitat Conservation Plan and a Chevron, USA, Inc. mitigation bank; restore habitat for sjlt; prevent disturbances of ons metapopulation.1
      2.1.5Western Madera CountyMaderapbbb, sjkf, bnll, fkr, lss, lhsbPrivate / continue traditional land uses (natural gas extraction and cattle grazing), possible groundwater recharge and water banking site, an important link in the chain of habitat islands on Valley floor. Acquire title or easements for appropriate parcels from willing sellers. 1
      2.1.6 North central Fresno CountyFresnopbbb, bnll, fkr, sjkfPrivate/ located between the San Joaquin River, immediately north of the Alkali Sink Ecological Reserve, and San Mateo Road on the west, connects Alkali Sink Ecological Reserve to the Chowchilla Canal, an important link in the chain of habitat islands on Valley floor. Acquire title or easements for appropriate parcels from willing sellers.2
      2.1.7Pixley National Wildlife Refuge/Allensworth Natural AreaTulare, Kerntkr, bnll, sjkfPrivate, public/ includes the best and only large remnants of Relictual Interior Dune Grassland, variations of chenopod scrub, and Haplopappus Shrubland in the Tulare Basin. Acquire title or easements for appropriate parcels from willing sellers; restore habitat for tkr.1
      2.1.8Northwestern Merced CountyMercedlhsb, lss, sjkfPublic/ includes Federal wildlife refuges and waterfowl easement properties, State game areas, and State park land, provides a vital linkage between Valley floor and northwestern Valley edge; restore and enhance natural communities by practicing adaptive management, control grazing; (riparian areas are listed separately in Table 8).3
      2.1.9Sandy Mush Road/ South Grasslands AreaMercedlhsb, bnll, sjkf, lss, pbbb, fkrPrivate/ a chain of habitat islands on the valley floor, that together with establishing Valley floor linkages through agricultural land, links Merced County National Wildlife Refuges, State areas and other natural lands with the northeastern and northwestern edges of the Valley and with natural areas to the south. Acquire title or easements for appropriate parcels from willing sellers.2
      2.1.10Kettleman HillsFresno, Kingssjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, sjkf, snkr, tgm, ddw, hws, sjdb, sjlt USBLM, private/ protect area from development through acquisition or easements from willing sellers; conduct land survey to determine ownership of site with ddw, major population center for sjwt, hws.1
      2.1.11Kern National Wildlife Refuge/ Semitropic Ridge Natural AreaKernhws, bnll, sjas, sjkf, tkr, bvls, mtt, lhsb, sjwt, tgmUSFWS, State, private/ enhance natural communities by creation of areas of refuge above historic flood levels for tkr, provides link for sjkf to Pixley/Allensworth area, designated as preapproved acquisition area for the Metropolitan Bakersfield Habitat Conservation Plan. Manage and restore appropriate habitat, and introduce bvls. Acquire title or easements for appropriate parcels from willing sellers.3
      2.1.12Carrizo Plain Natural AreaSan Luis Obispocjf, hws, jpg, tbw, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, sjkf, snkr, tgm, sjlt, lhsb, mttUSBLM, State, The Nature Conservancy, private/ restore and enhance natural communities by practicing adaptive management; reintroduce featured species to suitable habitat where appropriate.1
      2.1.13Upper Cuyama ValleySanta Barbara, San Luis Obispocjf, hws, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, sjkf, snkr, tgm, sjltUSBLM, private/ protect natural lands from development through acquisition or easement from willing sellers; ensure traditional rangeland uses continue while protecting vulnerable plant populations (Santa Barbara Canyon listed as a speciality reserve area in Table 8).3
      2.1.14 Ciervo-Panoche Natural AreaFresno, San Benitojpg, hws, sjwt, lhsb, mtt, bnll, gkr, sjas, sjkf, sjlt, snkr, tgm, casb, sjdbUSBLM, State, private/ protect natural lands from development through acquisition or easement from willing sellers; ensure traditional rangeland uses continue while monitoring and protecting vulnerable plant and insect populations.1
      2.1.15Kreyenhagen HillsFresnocjf, sjkf, snkrUSBLM, private/ only known population of cjf on public land east of the inner Coast Ranges; continue protecting cjf population and managing rangeland in an adaptive manner.1
      2.1.16Bitter Creek National Wildlife RefugeKern, Venturasjas, sjkf, tgmUSFWS/ restore and enhance natural communities by practicing adaptive management.3
      2.1.17Kerman and Alkali Sink Ecological RefugesFresnopbbb, sjkf, fkr, bnll, hws, lss, lhsbCDFG/ restore and enhance natural communities by practicing adaptive management; reintroduce fkr.1
      2.1.18Mendota Wildlife AreaFresnopbbb, sjkf, fkr, snkr, bnllCDFG/ manage appropriately for featured species, develop specific management agreement for areas not managed for waterfowl.3
      2.1.19Northwestern portion of kit fox rangeAlameda, Contra CostasjkfMostly private/ maintain larger natural areas identified in CDFG's Framework for Maintaining the San Joaquin Kit Fox in the Northwestern Segment of its Range (in litt. 1996), maintain beneficial grazing practices.2

      1Species
      bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp - Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

      Figure 70
      Figure 70. Place locations for Tables 7, 9, and 10.

      1. 2.2. Establish and protect specialty reserves.

        Table 8 lists specialty reserves to be established. Figure 71 shows the general location of these specialty reserves. Several of these specialty reserves are located within linkage areas (See Task 5). Public and conservation lands listed in Table 8 should be adaptively managed to maximize their potential to support listed and sensitive species. Private lands included in Table 8 should be protected through conservation or management agreements, acquisition, easements or other mechanisms, then adaptively managed. Management plans should be developed for all protected areas.

        Table 8. Natural Lands Targeted for Protection as Specialty Reserves. See Figure 71 for the location of each specialty reserve.

        Recovery Task #Locality (Map Symbol - Figure 71)CountySpecies (target in bold)1Landowner/CommentsPriority
        2.2.1Woodland (A)YolopbbbCity of Woodland/ develop and implement habitat restoration, enhancement and management plan.1
        2.2.2Springtown Alkali Sink (B)AlamedapbbbCDFG, City of Livermore, Federal Communications Commission, private/ enhance habitat, develop and implement a plan to restore natural hydrology, establish cooperative management program; greatest genetic diversity for pbbb.1
        2.2.3Lower Stanislaus River (C)San Joaquin, Stanislausrbr, rwrCOE/ review and enforce wildlife habitat easements downstream from the City of Ripon, restore riparian habitat, provide additional flood and fire protection; prepare emergency preplan for habitat protection at Caswell State Park; reintroduce rbr, rwr.1
        2.2.4San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge (D)Stanislausrbr, rwrUSFWS-Private/ restore riparian habitat, provide additional flood and fire protection; reintroduce rbr, rwr.1
        2.2.5San Joaquin River Riparian Communities (E)Mercedrbr, rwr, sjkfCDFG, California Department of Parks and Recreation, USFWS/ restore riparian habitat, manage grazing, provide additional flood and fire protection, upland habitat may provide linkage; reintroduce rbr, rwr.1
        2.2.6Lemoore Naval Air Station (F)Kingsfkr, bnll, sjkfNavy/ enlarge and restore habitat area by retiring adjacent farmland on the base.1
        2.2.7North of Tulare Lake Bed (G)Kingsfkr, bnll, sjkfPrivate/ preserve as grazing land; possible mitigation bank sites.1
        2.2.8Granite Station (H)KernbcPrivate/ isolated from metropolitan Bakersfield population, potential contribution to taxonomic information, maintain current land uses.2
        2.2.9Devil's Den Area (I)Kernhws, jpg, cjf, tbw, bnll, sjkf, snkr, sjas, sjlt, tgmPrivate, USBLM/ maintain compatible land uses2
        2.2.10Lost Hills-Buena Vista Slough (J)Kernsjwt, lhsb, mtt, hws, sjkf, snkr, bnll, tkr, sjasPrivate/ also provides an important link between natural lands along the western edge of the Valley and natural lands in the Semitropic and Pixley-Allensworth areas; one of largest metapopulations of sjwt. 2
        2.2.11Jerry Slough to Highway 58 (K)Kernlss, hwsPrivate/ southeast of Goose Lake bed; southernmost population of lss, maintain current land uses.2
        2.2.12Greater Bakersfield, North of the Kern River (L)Kernbc, bnll, sjkfPrivate, CDFG/ maintain existing land uses of oil production and grazing, avoid or fence plant populations.2
        2.2.13Fairfax Road-Highway 178-Highway 184 (M)KernbcPrivate/ type locality for var. kernii, fence fragmented populations.2
        2.2.14Kern Bluffs (N)Kernbc, sjkf, bnll, snkrPrivate, CDFG/ fence to exclude off-road vehicles from the wash area; monitor vegetation to determine effects of changing the grazing regime.1
        2.2.15Fuller Acres (O)KernbcPrivate/ lowest elevation remaining occurrence of bc, last remnant of once extensive population.2
        2.2.16Mouth of Kern Canyon (P)KernbcPrivate/ population contains considerable morphological variation, maintain current land uses.2
        2.2.17Cottonwood Creek (Q)KernbcPrivate, CDFG/ only site in association with cottonwoods, one of few sites with typical var. treleasei, maintain current land uses.2
        2.2.18Bena Hills-Caliente Hills (R)Kernvc, bc, cjf, cpl, tpPrivate/ delimited in north by Walker Basin, south by Highway 58, southeast by Caliente, and west by Valley floor, type locality of bc, only known location of vc, maintain current land uses.1
        2.2.19Sand Ridge (S)Kernbc, sjwt, sjkf, snkrCenter for Natural Lands Management, CDFG, private/ one of two largest metapopulations of bc, expand reserve, protect natural lands from off-road vehicles, sand mining, and conversion.1
        2.2.20Comanche-Tejon Hills (T)Kerncpl, tp, bc, sjkf, bnll, snkrPrivate/ maintain current land uses.1
        2.2.21Kern Lake-Gator Pond (U)Kernbvls, bss, cplPrivate/ only known population of bvls and bss, restore hydrology and wetland vegetation; protect and secure permanent water supply.1
        2.2.22Mettler-Wheeler Ridge (V)Kernbc, bnll, snkr, sjkfPrivate, California Department of Water Resources, Wildlands Conservancy/ one of largest metapopulations of bc.1
        2.2.23Upper Cuyama Valley, Santa Barbara Canyon (W)Santa Barbaracjf, hws, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, sjkf, snkr, tgmUSBLM, private/ largest extant population of cjf.1
        2.2.24Interstate 5/ California Highway 41 (X)KingsddwCaltrans/ protect habitat on Caltrans right-of-way.1
        2.2.25Colusa, Delevan, and Sacramento National Wildlife Refuges (Y)Colusa, Glennpbbb, lssUSFWS/ develop and implement management plans; largest population of pbbb.1
        2.2.26Lawrence Livermore Laboratory/Site 300 (Z) AlamedadpcpDepartment of Energy/ develop and implement a management plan for dpcp.1

        1Species
        bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp -Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

        Figure 71
        Figure 71. Locations of specialty reserves targeted for protection (see Table 8).

  3. 3. Determine distributions and population statuses of featured species.

    Data on distribution and population numbers of most featured species are insufficient for development of management prescriptions and to implement other conservation measures. Surveys are a high priority for 22 of the 34 species and are an important priority for 9 others in this plan. Integrated programs (e.g., surveying an area for multiple species when possible) should be developed and implemented to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

    1. 3.1. Establish a program and protocol for general and directed surveys for covered species (Priority 1).

      A coordinated program should be developed to effectively conduct surveys for featured species. A protocol should be established for directed botanical surveys (i.e., for species whose flowering or season of growth differs from the majority of plants) and general surveys for plants and animals.

    2. 3.2. Conduct general and directed surveys as needed.

      Table 9 summarizes survey and population census needs for featured species. Directed and general botanical surveys are needed on remaining natural lands throughout the planning area, but especially along the eastern and southern edges of the Valley foothills. For featured animal species, information on occurrence and status is minimal along the eastern and southern edges of the Valley, in the Merced grasslands, and in the Salinas River and Pajaro River watersheds. Obtaining reliable distributional and population data for the San Joaquin kit fox is a high priority.

    Table 9. Survey and population census needs for featured species by geographic area or community in the San Joaquin Valley planning area. See Figure 70 for the location of specific survey areas.

    Task NumberAreaTarget Species1
    (additional featured species known or possible)
    CommentsPriority
    Multispecies Plant Surveys
    3.2.1Comanche-Tejon Hillstp, cpl (bc)Kern Co.1
    3.2.2Caliente-Bena Hillscjf, vc, tp, cpl (bc)Kern Co.1
    3.2.3Rancheria Gulch/Adobe Canyoncjf, tp (ons)Kern Co.2
    3.2.4southern Valley alkali sinkslss, bss, & lhsb Kern Co., summer-fall1
    3.2.4southern Valley alkali sinkscpl, mttKern Co., spring2
    3.2.5alkali sinks in San Joaquin Valley north of Kern Countypbbb, lss, lhsb [summer-fall]Tulare, Kings, Fresno, Madera, Merced, Stanislaus, San Joaquin, Alameda, and Contra Costa counties1
    3.2.5alkali sinks in San Joaquin Valley north of Kern Countymtt, jpg [spring]Tulare, Kings, Fresno, Madera, and Merced counties2
    3.2.6alkali sinks in Sacramento Valleypbbb, lssSacramento, Solano, Yolo, Sutter, Colusa, Butte, and Glenn counties2
    3.2.7NPRC-1 (Elk Hills)lhsb, tp, ons (cjf, km, hws, sjwt, tbw)Kern Co.1
    3.2.8west side of southern San Joaquin Valley (Maricopa to McKittrick, including Buena Vista Valley and NPRC-2)cjf, km, lhsb, tp, ons (hws, sjwt, tbw)Kern Co.1
    Single Species Plant Surveys
    3.2.9Cottonwood PasscjfKern and Kings counties2
    3.2.10historic locations outside of Elk Hillstbw Kern, San Luis Obispo, and Monterey counties2
    3.2.11Salt CreektpKern Co.2
    3.2.12historic locationsdpcpSan Luis Obispo, Stanislaus, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Colusa counties1
    3.2.13historic locations in San Luis Obispo CountymttSan Luis Obispo Co.2
    3.2.14historic locationsjpgSan Luis Obispo, Fresno, and San Benito counties2
    3.2.15suitable habitat in historic rangemmMerced and Stanislaus counties1
    3.2.16historic locationsmpMerced Co.2
    Multispecies Animal Surveys
    3.2.17sand and sand dune communities, northwestern San Joaquin Valley casb, sjdb, ddwContra Costa, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, San Benito counties3
    3.2.18upland vertebrates, northern Valley floorbnll, fkr, sjkf (pbbb, lss, lhsb) central Merced, W. Madera, central Fresno counties; summer-early fall1
    3.2.19upland vertebrates, southern Valley floorbnll, tkr sjkf, sjlt, tgm (lss, bss, lhsb) Kings, Tulare, Kern counties; summer-early fall3
    3.2.20upland vertebrates, central western Valley edgebnll, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjkr, sjlt, tgmFresno, San Benito counties; late-spring-early fall3
    3.2.21upland vertebrates, Kettleman Hills bnll, gkr, snkr, sjas sjkr, sjlt, tgmFresno, Kings, Kern counties; late spring-early fall2
    3.2.22upland vertebrates, southwestern Valley edgebnll, gkr, snkr, sjas sjkr, sjlt, tgmKings, Kern counties from south of Pleasant Valley to south of Maricopa; late spring-early fall3
    3.2.23upland vertebrates, southeast and southern Valley edgebnll, snkr, sjas sjkr, sjlt, tgmKern Co. from Maricopa southward and eastward, then northward to the Kern River; late spring-early fall3
    3.2.24upland vertebrates, Cuyama Valleybnll, gkr, snkr, sjas sjkr, sjlt, tgmVentura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties; late spring-early fall3
    3.2.25upland vertebrates, San Juan Creek watershedbnll, gkr, snkr, sjas sjkr, sjlt, tgmSan Luis Obispo Co.; late spring-early fall3
    3.2.26riparian speciesrbr, rwrSan Joaquin, Stanislaus Co.1
    Single Species Animal Surveys
    3.2.27northwestern Valley edgesjkfContra Costa, Alameda, San Joaquin counties3
    3.2.28northeastern Valley edgesjkfStanislaus, Merced, Madera counties3
    3.2.29Ciervo-Panoche Natural AreasjltFresno, San Benito counties3
    3.2.30southern Valley wetlandsbvls (lss, bss, lhsb) Kern Co.1
    3.2.31southeastern Valley edgesjkfTulare, Kern counties, north of Kern River3
    3.2.32Salinas River and Pajaro River watershedssjkfSan Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Benito counties2

    1Species
    bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp - Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

  4. 4. Conduct important research and monitoring.

    Table 10 lists important research and monitoring needs for covered species by geographic area or community. Habitat surveys and population monitoring for covered species are priorities in most geographic areas. Most research on population biology and habitat management for several species can be combined into single programs, reducing costs, increasing coverage and strengthening quality of ecosystem-level management. Large blocks of public land provide the best setting for control and execution of scientifically valid research on featured species biology and habitat management. Seed banking is included in Table 10 with research and monitoring of plant species where known populations of plants occur. Combining all of these tasks by study area reduces overall costs. When seed banking is identified as a recovery action, seed collections must be representative of the source populations and must not deplete them. Detailed guidelines for seed collection have been published by the Center for Plant Conservation (1991). See the recovery strategy section of each species account for further details on species-specific research and monitoring needs.

    Table 10. Demographic and Other Research and Monitoring Needs for Featured Species in Upland and Riparian Communities of the San Joaquin Valley Planning Area. TBD = to be determined; N/A = not applicable. See Figure 70 for the location of research areas.

    Recovery
    Task #
    Study Area
    (if applicable)
    Tasks and Target Species1CommentsPriority
    4.1Santa Barbara Canyon, Santa Barbara Co.effects of grazing + census + monitoring + reproduction & demography + identity of pollinators + seed banking (all tasks for cjf)2
    4.2Cuyama Valley, Santa Barbara & San Luis Obispo Countiescensus (snkr) + monitoring (bnll, gkr, sjas, sjlt)3
    4.3Carrizo Plain Natural Area, San Luis Obispo Co.competition from exotics (cjf, sjwt) + census (cjf, jpg, mtt, lhsb) + monitoring (cjf, sjwt, hws, jpg, mtt, lhsb, tbw) + reproduction & demography (cjf, sjwt) + identity of pollinators (cjf) + seed banking (cjf) + pesticide effects on pollinators (cjf)cjf, sjwt censuses & reproduction & demography partly completed; fire effects on cjf and grazing effects on sjwt will be studied on same plots as for animals2
    4.4Carrizo Plain Natural Area, San Luis Obispo Co.effects of fire (cjf, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm) + effects of grazing (sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, sjlt, tgm) + competition from Heermann’s kangaroo rat (snkr) + census (bnll, gkr, snkr) + monitoring (bnll, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjlt, tgm) + reproduction & demography (bnll, snkr) bnll & gkr censuses & reproduction & demography partly completed2
    4.5Carrizo Plain Natural Area, San Luis Obispo Co.effects of fire + effects of grazing + census + monitoring + reproduction & demography (all tasks for sjkf)the wider-ranging kit fox requires different experimental design than for more sedentary animals & plants though some actions in habitat management can be combined for cost savings2
    4.6Carrizo Plain Natural Area, San Luis Obispo Co.mating & social systems (gkr)some aspects of research completed or in progress3
    4.7Kern Lake, Kern Co.competition from exotics + census + reproduction & demography + seed banking (all tasks for bss)1
    4.8Kern Lake, Kern Co.census (bvls) + monitoring (bss, bvls) + reproduction & demography (bvls) bss can be monitored at same time as bvls is monitored1
    4.9Kern Lake, Kern Co.systematics & genetics (bss)2
    4.10Lokern, Kern Co.competition from exotics (km) + census (km) + monitoring (km, hws, lhsb) + reproduction & demography (km) + identity of pollinators (km)km reproduction & demography partly completed; grazing & fire effects on km will be studied on same plots as for animals2
    4.11Lokern, Kern Co.effects of grazing (km, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjkf, sjlt, tgm) + effects of fire (km, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjkf, sjlt, tgm) + census (gkr, sjkf, sjlt) + monitoring (gkr, tgm, snkr, sjas, sjkf, sjlt) + reproduction & demography (bnll)gkr census in progress at one site; bnll reproduction & demography could be investigated at Elk Hills-Buena Vista Valley in addi­tion or in place of this site.1
    4.12Lokern, Kern Co.pesticide effects on pollinators (km), insect prey base (bnll, tgm, sjlt), & targeted species (bnll, tgm, sjlt)1
    4.13Elk Hills-Buena Vista Valley area, Kern Co.competition from exotics (ons) + census (ons) + monitoring (hws, ons) + reproduction & demography (ons) + characteristics of microhabitat (ons) + life history (ons) + seed banking (ons)1
    4.14Elk Hills-Buena Vista Valley area, Kern Co.competition from Heermann’s kangaroo rat (snkr) + census (sjlt) + monitoring (gkr, snkr, sjas, sjlt, tgm) + effects of grazing (bnll, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjlt, tgm)entire region from Elk Hills-McKittrick Valley southward through Maricopa area, but centered on Naval Petroleum Reserves in California2
    4.15Elk Hills-Buena Vista Valley area, Kern Co.census + monitoring + reproduction & demography + dispersal + effects of grazing (all tasks for sjkf)entire region from Elk Hills-McKittrick Valley southward through Maricopa area, but centered on Naval Petroleum Reserves in California; the wider-ranging kit fox requires different experimental design though some actions in habitat management can be combined for cost savings2
    4.16Metropolitan Bakersfieldreproduction, demography, and dispersal (sjkf)1
    4.17Lost Hills, Kern Co.monitoring (hws, sjwt, lhsb) + reproduction & demography (sjwt)2
    4.18Kern Bluffs + Kern Canyon + metro Bakersfield + Granite Station, Kern Co.effects of grazing + effects of off-road vehicle control (bc, snkr, sjkf) (Kern Bluffs) + census + monitoring + repro­duction & demography + iden­­tity of pollinators (all tasks for bc) 2
    4.19Sand Ridge (bc) + Bena- Caliente (bc, vc), Kern Cocompetition from exotics + effects of off-road vehicle control (bc, snkr, sjkf) (Sand Ridge, bc; Bena Hills, vc) + effects of fire (Sand Ridge, bc) + census (bc, vc) + monitoring (bc, vc, snkr, sjas, sjkf) + reproduction & demography (bc, vc) + identity of pollinators (bc) + seed banking (vc)1
    4.20Sand Ridge or Wheeler Ridgepesticide effects on pollinators (bc)2
    4.21Wheeler Ridge + Comanche Point + Cottonwood Creek + Fuller Acres, Kern Co.effects of grazing (Wheeler Ridge) + census + monitoring + reproduction & demography + identity of pollinators (all tasks for bc) monitoring for bc at Wheeler Ridge & Comanche Point can be combined with animal monitoring for cost savings (see next task)2
    4.22Wheeler Ridge + Comanche Point, Kern Co.monitoring (bnll, snkr, sjkf)3
    4.23All inhabited sites, Kern Co.systematics & genetics (bc)3
    4.24Alameda, Kern, Kings, Monterey, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, & Ventura Countiessystematics & genetics (km)includes geographic range of Parry’s mallow2
    4.25Pixley National Wildlife Refuge-Allensworth Ecological Reserve, Tulare Co.competition from Heerman’s kangaroo rat (tkr) + effects of grazing (bnll, tkr) + effects of fire (bnll, tkr) + census (bnll, tkr, sjkf) + moni­tor­­ing (bnll, tkr, sjkf) + reproduction & demography (bnll, tkr)census for bnll, tkr partly completed; some aspects of grazing and fire management for tkr in progress; some aspects of reproduction and demography for bnll, tkr completed or in progress1
    4.26Pixley National Wildlife Refuge-Allensworth Ecological Reserve, Kern National Wildlife Refuge-Semitropic Ridge Natural Area, Kern & Tulare Counties and agricultural lands as appropriatedispersal + movements + diet + reproduction & demography + use of agricultural fields + use of artificial dens (all tasks for sjkf) + census + monitor + reproduction & demography (all tasks for bvls)habitat management studies for bnll, tkr (see preceding task) will provide some information for habitat management for sjkf1
    4.27Kettleman Hills, Kings Co.monitoring + census + reproduction & demography + life history + land use effects (all tasks for ddw)1
    4.28Kettleman Hills-Devils Den, Fresno, Kings, & Kern Countiescompetition from exotics (sjwt) + cen-sus (jpg) + monitoring (hws, jpg, sjwt) + reproduction & demography (sjwt) 2
    4.29Kettleman Hills, Kings & Fresno Countiesmonitoring (bnll, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjkf, sjlt)habitat management studies (grazing, fire) & population monitoring are in progress3
    4.30Lemoore Naval Air Station, Kings Co.effects of grazing + effects of fire + census + monitoring (all tasks for fkr)in progress1
    4.31Kreyenhagen Hills, Fresno Co.effects of grazing (cjf) + competition from exotics (cjf) + census (cjf) + monitoring (cjf, tgm, snkr, sjlt, sjkf)+ reproduction & demography (cjf) + identity of pollinators (cjf)+ seed banking (cjf) + pesticide effects on pollinatorspriority is for cjf tasks; monitoring for other species can be accomplished during trips to study cjf2
    4.32Jacalitos Hills, Fresno Co.monitoring + reproduction & demography (all tasks for sjwt)2
    4.33Alkali Sink Ecological Reserve, Fresno Co.census (pbbb) + monitoring (pbbb, hws, bnll, sjkf, possibly fkr) + reproduction & demography (pbbb) + seed banking (pbbb) monitoring is priority 1 if fkr is rediscovered or reestablished there2
    4.34Alkali Sink Ecological Reserve & Kerman Ecological Reserve, Fresno Co.census (Kerman Ecological Reserve; lss, lhsb) + monitoring (Kerman Ecological Reserve; lss, lhsb, bnll, possibly fkr) + competition from Heermann’s kangaroo rat (fkr)1
    4.35W. Madera Co.census (pbbb, lss) + monitoring (pbbb, lss, bnll, sjkf, possibly fkr) + reproduction & demography (pbbb, bnll) + seed banking (pbbb) pbbb blooms and sets seeds in summer to early fall, so life cycle overlaps much of period for studying bnll2
    4.36W. Madera Co. + Woodland, Yolo Co.genetics (pbbb)2
    4.37Ciervo-Panoche Natural Area, Fresno & San Benito Countiesland use effects (casb, snkr) + census (jpg, snkr) + monitoring (sjwt, jpg, casb, sjdb) + reproduction & demography (sjwt, casb, sjdb) + life history (casb, sjdb) gkr census completed2
    4.38Ciervo-Panoche Natural Area, Fresno & San Benito Countiescensus (sjkf) + monitoring (bnll, gkr, snkr, sjas, sjkf, tgm)sjkf census partly completed (northern portion of area)2
    4.39all sites, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Merced, & San Luis Obispo Countiessystematics (lhsb) study directed at relationship of Carrizo Plain Natural Area population3
    4.40all sites, Merced Co.systematics (mp)3
    4.41all sites, Kern, Monterey, & San Luis Obispo Countiessystematics (tbw)3
    4.42San Luis Island, Merced Co.census + monitoring (lhsb)2
    4.43riparian communities, San Joaquin & Stanislaus Countiespopulation census (rbr, rwr) + monitoring (rbr, rwr) + captive breeding research (rbr) + experimental introduction and reintroduction (rbr, rwr)1
    4.44Northwest portion of range, Valley fringes on eastern & northwestern sides (Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, Kings, Kern, & Tulare Counties)census + monitoring (sjkf)2
    4.45Camp Roberts, Monterey & San Luis Obispo Countiesland use effects + dispersal + census + monitoring + investigate reasons for recent population declime (sjkf)some aspects of land use effects & monitoring are in progress2
    4.46Ft. Hunter Liggett, Monterey Co.land use effects + dispersal + census + monitoring + investigate reasons for recent population decline (sjkf)some aspects of land use effects & monitoring are in progress2
    4.47Springtown, Alameda Co.effects of grazing + monitoring + reproduction & demography + seed banking (all tasks for pbbb)2
    4.48Springtown, Alameda Co.hydrologic study (pbbb)study ongoing1
    4.49Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge complex + Woodland; Colusa, Glenn, & Yolo Countiescompetition from exotics (National Wildlife Refuges only) + monitoring + reproduction & demography + seed banking (all tasks for pbbb)2
    4.50currently verified sites in Butte, Kern, and Merced Countiescensus + monitoring (lss)2
    4.51all sitesmetapopulation genetics (bnll3
    4.52all sitesmetapopulation genetics (sjkf)some aspects of study completed or in progress2
    4.53all sitespopulation genetics (bvls)genetics studies must be conducted prior to reintroduction efforts to ensure that animals taken to establish new populations are genetically representative of the parent population without depleting the genetic diversity of the parent population2
    4.54all sitespopulation genetics (rbr)genetics studies must be conducted prior to reintroduction efforts to ensure that animals taken to establish new populations are genetically representative of the parent population without depleting the genetic diversity of the parent population1
    4.55all sitespopulation genetics (rwr)genetics studies must be conducted prior to reintroduction efforts to ensure that animals taken to establish new populations are genetically representative of the parent population without depleting the genetic diversity of the parent population1
    4.56TBDeffects of pesticide use & drift (bvls)potential sites are Kern Lake & Kern National Wildlife Refuge2
    4.57TBDkit fox-red fox-coyote interactions (sjkf)depending on survey results implement control methods as needed2
    4.58TBDdirect & indirect effects of rodenticide use (sjkf)potential sites are the Pixley National Wildlife Refuge-Allensworth Natural Area-Kern National Wildlife Refuge area & the Lokern-Elk Hills area3
    4.59TBDcensus + monitoring + seed banking (bss)depends on survey results1
    4.60TBDcensus + monitoring (cpl)depends on survey results2
    4.61TBDcensus + monitoring + seed banking (dpcp)depends on survey results1
    4.62TBDcensus + monitoring + seed banking (lss)depends on survey results1
    4.63TBDcensus + monitoring + seed banking (mm)depends on survey results1
    4.64TBDcensus + monitoring (mp)depends on survey results2
    4.65TBDcensus + monitoring (mtt)depends on survey results2
    4.66TBDcensus + monitoring (tp)depends on survey results2
    4.67TBDcensus + monitoring + seed banking (vc)depends on survey results1
    4.68N/Asalinity effects on plant structure (bss)laboratory study3
    4.69N/Aeffects of beet leafhopper control (casb, ddw, sjdb) laboratory study2
    4.70N/Apublish scientific name & description (ddw)establishing scientific validity of species status & formal naming are important in setting priorities for recovery funding3
    4.71N/Amatrix projection modeling (cjf)modeling should show that all protected populations are self-sustaining3
    4.72N/Amatrix projection modeling (pbbb)modeling should show that all protected populations are self-sustaining3
    4.73N/Amatrix projection modeling (km)modeling should show that all protected populations are self-sustaining3
    4.74N/Amatrix projection modeling (sjwt)modeling should show that all protected populations are self-sustaining3
    4.75N/Amatrix projection modeling (bc)modeling should show that all protected populations are self-sustaining3
    4.76N/Asingle-metapopulation viability analysis (gkr)Model should show no greater than a 5-percent probability of extinction over a 200-year period in each of the three largest metapopulations; preliminary modeling in progress3
    4.77N/Asingle-metapopulation viability analysis (fkr)Model should show no greater than a 5-percent probability of extinction over a 200-year period for the entire population; preliminary modeling in progress3
    4.78N/Asingle-metapopulation viability analysis (tkr)Model should show no greater than a 5-percent probability of extinction over a 200-year period for the entire population; preliminary modeling in progress3
    4.79N/Asingle-metapopulation viability analysis (bnll)Model should show no greater than 5-percent probability of extinction over a 200-year period for five or more of seven populations; preliminary modeling in progress3
    4.80N/Arefine spatially-explicit metapopulation viability analysis (sjkf)Model should show no greater than 5-percent probability of extinction for entire subspecies population in 300 years; preliminary modeling in progress3
    4.81Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Site 300census + monitoring + seed banking (dpcp)1
    4.82TBDeffects of selenium (bvls)Potential sites are Kern Lake and Kern National Wildlife Refuge2

    1Species
    bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp -Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

  5. 5. Maintain and establish linkages in existing natural lands and between islands of habitat on the Valley floor and natural lands around the fringe of the Valley.

    To prevent genetic isolation of populations of listed and sensitive species on the Valley floor from populations in the surrounding foothills, or the isolation of kit fox populations in any part of their range, linkages should be maintained and/or established through management or conservation agreements, incentive programs, zoning, acquisition, easements, or other mechanisms.

    1. 5.1. Establish linkages between isolated islands of habitat on the Valley floor and natural lands in the surrounding foothills.

      Table 11 describes linkage areas on the Valley floor and Figure 72 shows their location. For linkages of natural habitat, such as the Chowchilla Canal and Kern River, the primary goal is to enhance natural habitat without compromising the primary function of these waterways. To establish linkages in farmlands, two programs are recommended: 1) focused retirement of drainage problem farmlands and subsequent restoration of natural habitat, (see Task 1.2.6); and 2) focused implementation of a voluntary "safe harbor" program that would establish wildlife friendly habitat areas on active farmlands (see Task 1.2.5). The resulting linkages would be a mosaic of existing natural lands, retired and restored farmland, and active farmlands with associated wildlife habitat areas.

      Table 11. Valley Floor Linkage Areas. See Figure 72 for the location of each linkage area.

      Recovery Task #LocalityCountySpecies (target in bold)1Landowner/CommentsPriority
      5.1.1Western Fresno County (Valley floor west of Fresno Slough and San Joaquin River)Fresnosjkf, snkr, bnll, hws, lhsb, lss, pbbb, gkrPrivate farmland/ located between natural lands of western Fresno County, in the Monocline Ridge-Tumey Hills-Panoche Hills area and Mendota Wildlife Area and western Madera County, retire strategic parcels to provide continuous link of natural lands; one target area for retirement and safe harbor program is along Panoche Creek2
      5.1.2Garces Highway Kern, Tularebnll, tkr, sjkf, sjas, tgmPrivate farmland/ located between Kern National Wildlife Refuge-Semitropic Ridge Natural Area and Pixley-Allensworth Natural Area2
      5.1.3Highway 43Tularebnll, tkr, sjkfPrivate farmland/ located between Creighton Ranch and Pixley-Allensworth Natural Area3
      5.1.4Semitropic Ridge to Lost HillsKernsjkfPrivate farmland/ links to Garces Highway corridor3
      5.1.5Kettleman Hills to Anticline RidgeFresno, Kings, Kernbnll, sjkf, snkr, tgm, sjltPrivate farmland/ links with Coalinga and Guijarral Hills and rest of natural lands on the west edge of the Valley.2
      5.1.6Kern River Alluvial Fan AreaKernsjkf, tkrCity of Bakersfield, Private/ develop and implement management plan to protect and enhance natural values while maintaining flood-protection features, connecting corridor for sjkf movements across the southern Valley.3
      5.1.7Chowchilla CanalMaderapbbb, bnll, fkr, sjkfCOE/ enhance habitat values without compromising primary function, links Wildlife Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and grasslands areas.2
      5.1.8Sandy Mush RoadMercedlhsb, bnll, sjkf, lss, pbbb, fkrPrivate/links Merced County National Wildlife Refuges and State areas with the northeastern and northwestern edges of the Valley and with natural areas further south in Madera and Fresno Counties.2
      5.1.9Poso CreekKernsjkfKern County, Private/ links natural lands in the Sierra foothills on the east and Kern National Wildlife Refuge on the west.3

      1Species
      bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp -Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

      Figure 72
      Figure 72. General locations of areas targeted as Valley floor linkages between natural communities (see table 11).

    2. 5.2. Reintroduce featured species to enhanced and restored habitat within linkages where necessary (Priority 3).

      Once habitat restoration and enhancement has been accomplished in protected areas, appropriate featured plant and animal species should be reestablished if there are no adjacent source populations. Species such as Hoover's woolly-star, San Joaquin kit fox, kangaroo rats, and blunt-nosed leopard lizards have potential for reestablishment on restored farmlands.

    3. 5.3. Maintain linkages of natural lands around the fringe of the Valley and elsewhere for San Joaquin kit fox and other listed and sensitive species.

      Table 12 describes linkage areas on the fringe of the San Joaquin Valley and in adjacent valleys to the west. Figure 73 depicts linkage areas in the foothills surrounding the San Joaquin Valley. Maintenance of these linkages could be achieved through zoning, safe harbor programs (Task 1.2.5), easements, or other mechanisms.

      Table 12. Linkage areas around the San Joaquin Valley Edge and Elsewhere. See Figure 73 for the location of linkage areas around the San Joaquin Valley.

      Recovery Task #LocalityCountySpecies1
      (target in bold)
      Landowner/CommentsPriority
      5.3.1Northeast Valley edge to Madera-Fresno County lineSan Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Maderasjkf, mp, mmMostly private/ grassland and oak savanna communities, preserve 90 percent of existing natural lands, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses3
      5.3.2Northwest Valley edge to Santa NellaSan Joaquin, Stanislaus, MercedsjkfMostly private/ grassland and oak savanna communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.3East and Southeast Valley edge, Fresno-Tulare County boundary south to Kern River, Kern CountyTulare, Kernsjkf, bnll, sjas, snkr, tgm, cjf, bc, tp, onsMostly private/ grassland and oak savanna communities, urbanization, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.4Western Valley edge, Santa Nella to Panoche CreekMerced, Fresnosjkf, jpg, lhsb, mtt, sjas, snkr Mostly private/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.5Western Valley edge, Panoche Creek to Ciervo WashFresnosjkf, jpg, hws, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm, sjltMostly private/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.6Western Valley edge, Ciervo Wash to CoalingaFresnosjkf, jpg, hws, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm, sjltMostly private/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.7Western Valley edge, Coalinga to McKittrickFresno, Kings, Kernsjkf, cjf, jpg, hws, lhsb, ons, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm, sjltMostly private/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.8Southwest, Southern, and Southeastern Valley edge, McKittrick south to Maricopa, east and north to Kern RiverKernsjkf, bc, cpl, hws, ons, tp, vc, sjwt, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm, sjlt, cjf, lhsb, kmMostly private/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.9Salinas/Pajaro River watershed to San Joaquin ValleyMonterey, San Benito, San Luis ObisposjkfPrivate, public/ grassland and shrubland communities, preserve and enhance habitat and linkage to the San Joaquin Valley via the Estrella River and San Juan Creek watersheds, to the Carrizo Plain Natural Area, San Joaquin Valley and Kettleman Hills area, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses2
      5.3.10Cuyama Valley to Carrizo Plain Natural Area through lower portions of Caliente MountainsSan Luis Obispohws, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, sjkfPrivate, public/ grassland and shrubland communities, maintain grazing and other compatible land uses3
      5.3.11Estrella River watershedSan Luis Obispo, Montereydpcp, tbw, sjkfPrivate/ maintain grazing and other compatible land uses3
      5.3.12San Juan Creek watershedSan Luis Obisposjkf, bnll, gkr, sjas, snkr, tgm, dpcp, sjwt, tbwPrivate/ provides a significant portion of the natural lands linking Salinas Valley and Carrizo Plain Natural Area populations of the sjkf, maintain area in its current mosaic of dryland grain farms and ranch lands, many farmlands in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Conservation Reserve Program3

      1Species
      bc - Bakersfield cactus; bnll - Blunt-nosed leopard lizard; bss - Bakersfield smallscale; bvls - Buena Vista Lake shrew; casb - Ciervo aegialian scarab beetle; cjf - California jewelflower; cpl - Comanche Point layia; ddw - Doyen's dune weevil; dpcp -Diamond-petaled California poppy; fkr - Fresno kangaroo rat; gkr - Giant kangaroo rat; hws - Hoover's woolly-star; jpg - Jared's peppergrass; km - Kern mallow; lhsb - Lost Hills saltbush; lss - Lesser saltscale; mm - Merced monardella; mp - Merced phacelia; mtt - Munz's tidy-tips; ons - Oil neststraw; pbbb - Palmate-bracted bird's-beak; tp - Tejon poppy; rbr - Riparian brush rabbit; rwr - Riparian woodrat; sjas - San Joaquin antelope squirrel; sjdb - San Joaquin dune beetle; sjkf - San Joaquin kit fox; sjkr - San Joaquin kangaroo rat; sjlt - San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasher; sjwt - San Joaquin woolly-threads; snkr - Short-nosed kangaroo rat; tbw - Temblor buckwheat; tgm - Tulare grasshopper mouse; tkr - Tipton kangaroo rat; vc - Vasek's clarkia

      Figure 73
      Figure 73. San Joaquin Valley conservation and recovery planning overview (see table 12).

  6. 6. Apply adaptive management to protected areas (Priority 3).

    Revise or develop new management plans for protected habitat. All featured species require research on a variety of land management topics to develop the most effective prescriptions for managing protected habitat. Once appropriate research has been conducted, results should be applied to protected areas. Based on results of research and monitoring, existing management plans should be revised or new plans developed to maximize the value of protected habitat for featured species.

  7. 7. If necessary, reintroduce selected featured species to appropriate habitat within their historic range.

    Several featured species may require reintroduction to appropriate habitat within their historic range if surveying efforts do not discover enough extant populations to meet delisting criteria. Specific sites for reintroducing these species are currently unknown.

    1. 7.1. Reintroduce Doyen's dune weevil to appropriate habitat (Priority 3).

      Sites for reintroduction depend on results of life history studies as well as surveying for extant populations and identifying suitable habitat for reintroduction.

    2. 7.2. Propagate and reintroduce Bakersfield smallscale to appropriate habitat (Priority 1).

      If populations of pure Bakersfield smallscale are identified through research or surveys, propagate the species in the greenhouse to produce a sufficient amount of seed, then reintroduce to historic habitat on the Valley floor.

    3. 7.3. Reintroduce Comanche Point layia to appropriate habitat (Priority 2).

      Using seed collected from populations in the wild or stored in seed banks, reintroduce Comanche Point layia to appropriate habitat on the Valley floor.

    4. 7.4. Propagate and reintroduce California jewelflower to appropriate habitat (Priority 2).

      Propagate California jewelflower in greenhouses to produce sufficient seed, then reintroduce to appropriate habitat within the historic range, including the Valley floor.

    5. 7.5. Reintroduce Vasek's clarkia to appropriate habitat (Priority 2).

      Propagate Vasek's clarkia in greenhouses to produce sufficient seed, then reintroduce to appropriate habitat within the historic range.

    6. 7.6. Propagate and reintroduce diamond-petaled California poppy to appropriate habitat (Priority 1).

      Propagate diamond-petaled California poppy in greenhouses to produce sufficient seed, then reintroduce to appropriate habitat within the historic range.

    7. 7.7. Propagate and reintroduce Merced monardella to appropriate habitat (Priority 1).

      Propagate Merced monardella in greenhouses to produce sufficient seed, then reintroduce to appropriate habitat within the historic range.

    8. 7.8. Reintroduce riparian brush rabbit, riparian woodrat, Buena Vista Lake shrew, if necessary.

      1. 7.8.1. Reintroduce riparian brush rabbit to appropriate habitat in conjunction with captive propagation (Priority 1).

      2. 7.8.2. Reintroduce riparian woodrat to appropriate habitat (Priority 1).

      3. 7.8.3. Reintroduce Buena Vista Lake shrew to appropriate habitat (Priority 1).

  8. 8. Periodically review the status of candidates and species of concern to determine if listing as endangered or threatened is necessary.

    One of the objectives of this recovery plan is to ensure the long-term conservation of candidates and other species of concern by carrying out tasks specific to the needs of these species. However, if these tasks are not undertaken within a reasonable amount of time, listing of many of these species may be appropriate, thereby providing the protection of formal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Table 13 lists the species requiring this status review and the time frame for conducting this review.

    Table 13. Status Review Requirements for Candidates and Other Species of Concern Featured in this Recovery Plan.

    Recovery
    Task #
    SpeciesFederal StatusNeeded ReviewPriority
    8.1Lesser saltscalespecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.2Bakersfield smallscalespecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.3Lost Hills saltbushspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.4Vasek's clarkiaspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.5Temblor buckwheatspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.6Tejon poppyspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.7Diamond-petaled California poppyspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.8Comanche Point layiaspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.9Munz's tidy-tipsspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.10Jared's peppergrassspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.11Merced monardellaspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.12Merced phaceliaspecies of concernreevaluate status within 10 years of recovery plan approval or when surveys completed, whichever is less3
    8.13Oil neststrawspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.14Ciervo aegialian scarab beetlespecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when new information is available, whichever is less3
    8.15San Joaquin dune beetlespecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when new information is available, whichever is less3
    8.16Doyen's dune weevilspecies of concernreevaluate status within 3 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.17San Joaquin antelope squirrelspecies of concernreevaluate status within 3 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.18Short-nosed kangaroo ratspecies of concernreevaluate status within 3 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.19Tulare grasshopper mousespecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.20Buena Vista Lake shrewCandidatereevaluate status within 3 years of recovery plan approval3
    8.21San Joaquin Le Conte's thrasherspecies of concernreevaluate status within 5 years of recovery plan approval or when new information is available, whichever is less3

Zuni drawing of a tortoise

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